Creative thinking ability of women in nursing
Richard, Patricia L.
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A nonexperimental, descriptive, correlational design was used to determine the level of creative thinking ability of 60, randomly selected, baccalaureate junior and senior female nursing students. The relationship between creative thinking ability, perception of creative thinking ability, self-concept and perceived stress was also explored to assess the amount of variation in creative thinking ability accounted for by each independent variable. Instruments were the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Figural form B, the Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception Inventory which included two parts, What Kind of Person Are You? (WKOPAY), and Something About Myself (SAM), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and a demographic data profile. Twenty-eight (46.7%) of the subjects scored above the 50th percentile for Creative Thinking Ability (N = 60, $\mu$ = 113.72, SD = 13.14) indicating adequate levels of creative thinking ability compared to the adult female norm (N = 720, $\mu$ = 111.63, SD = 16.13). Subjects had average or above average levels of self-concept ($\mu$ = 77.86, SD = 17.65) compared to the adult norm ($\mu$ = 71.7, SD = 18.8), and perceived life as stressful ($\mu$ = 22.05, SD = 7.38) as compared to the adult norm ($\mu$ = 20.20, SD = 7.80). Multiple regression analyses indicated that the SEI ($\mu$ = 77.86, SD = 17.65) accounted for aproximately 9% of the variance of the dependent variable, creative thinking ability (multiple R =.295, $R\sp2$ =.087, F (1, 60) = 5.539, p =.02). The other independent variables, WKOPAY ($\mu$ = 26.28, SD = 6.21), SAM ($\mu$ = 27.6, SD = 6.71), and PSS ($\mu$ = 22.05, SD = 7.37) were not significant in the multiple regression equation. The projected technological advances and expanded roles of nurses for the future will make creative thinking ability an important asset for nurses. Therefore, the implications for this study include consideration of activities to integrate and promote creative thinking stimulating activities for students throughout the curriculum. Although the majority of the subjects indicated mid to high levels of self-concept, promotion of positive professional and personal self-concepts in students by the faculty and in the curriculum are indicated. And finally, because of the high levels of stress indicated by the subjects in the study, encouragement of students to seek guidance and counseling in stressful situations is also indicated.