Affect and achievement: creating an optimal learning experience in mathematics
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This paper is an analysis of cross-curricular studies about motivation, affect, and engagement in a classroom setting. We further determine appropriate tools for measuring student engagement and affect. Student self-efficacy is a determining factor in motivation and engagement in the classroom. Three instructional methods are of particular interest in increasing student engagement and motivation: problem-based learning, mastery learning, and student self-assessment. We consider each of these instructional methods in turn as ways to enhance student self-efficacy and positive affect and conduct a statistical analysis on the correlations between these measures. Problem-based learning, mastery learning, and student self-assessment are positively correlated with student affect, motivation, and engagement, which contribute to student achievement and future learning of mathematics.