Health status and health-related quality of life in congestive heart failure
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major public health concern today with a high mortality rate. The major purpose of this study was to examine the health status and healthrelated quality of life (HRQOL) of men and women with a diagnosis of CHF. A cross-sectional exploratory design was used. Specific study aims were to determine (a) whether there were differences in self-reported health status and HRQOL of men and women with CHF, (b) whether the variables of age, race/ethnicity, living status, number of comorbidities, perceived general health status, and perceived symptom management differ by gender, and (c) whether gender, age, race, number of comorbidities, living status, perceived general health status, perceived symptom management perceived physical health status, and perceived mental health status predict HRQOL. A non-probability convenience sample of 113 participants, who met the criteria for participation, were recruited from two cardiac clinics. There were no significant differences among gender categories on the variables of health status and HRQOL. Independent samples ttest showed no significant differences in age, total number of comorbidities, perceived general health status, and perceived symptoms management by gender. Chi-square test results revealed that gender and living status were independent, as were gender and race/ethnicity. Hierarchical regression analysis showed all predictors for each hypothesized dependent variable in the model contributed to the outcome. Perceived symptoms management was a direct predictor of functional status, and its prediction of the mental health component of functional status represented the model's highest relationship. The model's only nonsignificant path was from comorbidities to HRQOL. The variables of perceived general health status, physical health status, mental health status, and perceived symptom management contributed to the HRQOL outcome when age, but not comorbidities, was the exogenous variable. Using kappa, agreement regarding functional status was only 44% between patients and their healthcare providers, adjusted to 37% for chance agreement. The understanding gained from this stu<ty will provide guidance in planning future education and interventions for CHf patients.