The efficacy of video self-modeling in ameliorating aggressive behavior among students identified as at-risk within a response to intervention paradigm
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of video self-modeling (VSM) with early elementary-aged children who have not been evaluated as having a disability entitling them to special education services, but who have been identified by their teachers as exhibiting aggressive behavior within the school setting and were “at-risk” for experiencing educational difficulties due to behavior. Eight students from two elementary schools received the VSM intervention and their data were analyzed as part of this study. Teachers and parents completed the BRIEF and SSIS, and students were observed at baseline and after the intervention. Half of all observations were conducted with two raters in order to assess inter-rater reliability. Primary analyses of observational data included visual analysis of level, variability, and trend, as well as statistical analysis using two nonparametric techniques (i.e., NAP and Tau-U) and one parametric technique (i.e., Allison-MT regression). Analysis of clinical and nominally significant changes on the BRIEF and the SSIS were conducted by obtaining the reliable change index (RCI). The findings of this study indicated that VSM is a viable intervention for addressing aggressive behavior among at-risk elementary-aged students. Improvements in behavior were observed for seven out of eight participants, particularly among participants who displayed more aggression at baseline. Teachers also reported clinically significant changes in behavior for some participants on the BRIEF and the Problem Behaviors scale on the SSIS; however, the VSM intervention did not affect parent ratings on those same scales nor did it affect the Social Skills scale on the SSIS, which may reflect the items comprising those scales. These findings demonstrate that school psychologists can use VSM as a secondary prevention tool in working with students who display aggressive behaviors; however, it is recommended that school psychologists are cognizant of the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of VSM among at-risk students, who may not display significant behavioral deficits.