Influence of ethnic identity and perceived discrimination on male gender role conflict's impact on well-being
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The purpose of this study was to examine the role of men's ethnic identity and experiences of perceived discrimination (PD) on their levels of gender role conflict (GRC); additionally, the role of moderation by ethnic identity was considered by analyzing its impact on the relationship between GRC and well-being as well as GRC and PD. A group of 292 men of various ethnicities completed online measures of GRC, ethnic identity, PD, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life. Results showed that men with higher levels of GRC also had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with life. Men's levels of GRC were also found to be positively related to PD, such that higher levels of one were correlated with higher levels of the other. PD was unexpectedly found not to be related to self-esteem or satisfaction with life. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, but was unrelated to satisfaction with life. Ethnic identity was not found to act as a moderator in the relationships between GRC and well-being or between PD and well-being. The findings suggested that GRC remained a relevant factor in men's well-being, while the role of ethnic identity was less clear. Given the salience of ethnic identity in the lives of men of color and the potential for harmful effects of GRC and PD, the need for continued exploration of these variables in research was discussed. Also, the implications for mental health practitioners in their work with men were discussed.