Principals' perceptions of evidence-based practices used with African American students: Level of knowledge and campus implementation
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The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine elementary principals' perception of their level of knowledge on evidence-based practices that were known to contribute to success in the general education curriculum for African American students, and second, to examine principals' perceptions on the level of implementation of evidence-based practices on their campus. A non-experimental research survey design was used. Section one and two of the survey consisted of demographic information that was used as independent variables to determine if there was a relationship between levels of knowledge and observation levels of campus implementation of evidence-based practices. Section three consisted of the research questions. Section four consisted of two qualitative questions that asked the participants to describe what they believed to be barriers for teachers in the implementation of evidence-based practices and participants were also asked to describe what they believed to be important evidence-based practices that could be used with African American students. The data was analyzed to determine the relationship of the independent variables and the evidence-based practices. The participants were asked about their level of knowledge and level of campus implementation of the evidence-based practices, progress monitoring, peer tutoring, cooperative learning, direct instruction, graphic organizers, student grouping, and goal setting. The sample for the study consisted of 75 elementary principals in a North Central Texas urban school district. Findings from the study indicated significant differences between total years as a principal and level of knowledge of graphic organizers. Participants with one to five total years of experience rated themselves as having somewhat extensive level of knowledge on the use of graphic organizers. Additional data indicated that participants with one to five years of experience as a principal ranked themselves as having somewhat extensive level of knowledge of progress monitoring and graphic organizers. Data also indicated a significant difference between total years as a principal and level of campus implementation on the use of goal setting. Participants with over five years of experience as a principal rated themselves as observing a moderate level of campus implementation of goal setting.