Music relaxation video and pain control: A randomized controlled trial for women receiving intracavitary brachytherapy for gynecological cancer
Chi, Grace Chu-Hui-Lin
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The purpose of this repeated-measures, two-group experimental study was to explore the effects of a nonpharmacological nursing intervention, namely a music relaxation video, for women with gynecological cancer undergoing intracavitary brachytherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Those in the experimental group watched a 30-minute music relaxation video a total of four times during the first 44 hours of intracavitary brachytherapy. Five hypotheses were addressed. Data were collected to evaluate the video's effects on pain, opioid consumption, frequency of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) demanded and delivered injections and anxiety during that time. Pain scores were measured before and after watching the 30-minute music relaxation video, and anxiety scores were measured following the video. The control group received the same nursing care and underwent the same measurements without watching the video. Forty-four women with gynecologic cancer who were receiving their first intracavitary brachytherapy were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two groups. Chi square, Fisher's exact test and t-test were used in demographic data. Age and ethnicity were different, but they were not related to outcomes. No statistically significant differences in health-related variables, baseline pain or anxiety were identified. Hypotheses were tested using a t-test or ANOVA. Main effects were found on trial groups ( p = 0.008) and pre and post pain scores (p < .0005) on pain severity for all participants. Main effects were also found on trial groups (p = 0.012) and pre and post pain scores (p = .001) on pain severity excluding an outlier in the control group. No statistically significant differences were found in opioid consumption (t = -.033, p = .974), demanded PCA injections (t = 1.010, p = .318) or delivered PCA injections (t = 1.327, p = .192). A statistically significant difference was found in state anxiety scores (p = 0.003) between experimental and control group. In conclusion, viewing a music relaxation video during brachytherapy for gynecologic cancer did not reduce opioid consumption or significantly alter the number of demanded and delivered PCA injections. However women who viewed the music relaxation video reported lower anxiety and pain severity scores compared to women who did not view the music relaxation video.