Nurse educators' consensus opinion of high fidelity patient simulation
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Nurse educators are presently challenged to increase nursing school enrollments while maintaining a safe environment for students and their patients. Many schools are embracing human patient simulators (PIPS) as a way of enhancing and evaluating learning. There are multiple factors that may facilitate and/or hinder the use of HPS in undergraduate nursing education in the state of Texas. The major purpose of the study was to explore the opinions of Texas nursing educators regarding the implementation of HPS innovation in clinical teaching of undergraduate nursing students and to develop a consensus about the implementation of this innovation. Specifically, the major research question to be answered was “What are the opinions of undergraduate nursing educators regarding HPS implementation within pre-licensure nursing coursework?” This study used the Delphi technique. The Delphi Panel was composed of 86 professional nurse faculty members from the state of Texas who were educators in associate, diploma, and/or baccalaureate schools of nursing. The Delphi study utilized three rounds of data collection. Round 1 contained a demographic survey along with two open-ended questions requesting opinions about what facilitated and/or hindered HPS in undergraduate pre-licensure nursing education. For Round 2, a Likert-type instrument was developed from the panel members' opinion statements from Round 1. Round 3 was a consensus and ranking survey of the facilitating and/or hindering statements. Cain and Mittman's (2002) Diffusion of Innovation in Health Care theory with the ten critical dynamics was used to evaluate the findings. While the heterogenous panel group could not meet consensus, the homogenous baccalaureate and nonuser groups were able to meet consensus on several facilitating/hindering opinion statements. Statistically significant differences were observed between faculty members who taught at either the associate and baccalaureate levels and between members who had/did not have HPS on several facilitating/hindering statements. Findings indicated the panel members believe that the presence of the dynamic characteristics of infrastructure, leadership, relative advantage, and compatibility will facilitate the implementation of HPS into undergraduate nursing education.