Kinesiology

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    Examining the relationship between coping strategies and positive body image among older women
    (December 2023) karpiel, mary susan 1955-; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Mandy Golman; Menn, Mindy
    This exploratory study examined the relationships among coping strategies (appearance-fixing, avoidance, and positive rational acceptance), perceived sociocultural pressures, and positive body image in a sample of women aged 50 and older (N=164). The role of coping strategies as a moderator in the relationship between perceived sociocultural pressures and positive body image was also examined. Correlation analysis revealed that avoidance (r = -.746) appearance-fixing coping (r = -.238) were significantly and negatively correlated to positive body image, and positive rational acceptance ( r = .491) was significantly and positively correlated with positive body image. Correlation analysis also revealed that perceived sociocultural pressures (pressures mean r = -.44) were significantly and negatively correlated with positive body image. In addition, as a first step in determining moderation, multiple linear regression indicated that the three coping strategies significantly predicted positive body image; however, perceived sociocultural pressures were not significant predictors of positive body image. Furthermore, moderation with interaction was tested with coping strategies (appearance-fixing, avoidance, positive rational acceptance) and avoidance coping was the only coping style with a significant interaction. Thereby, indicating that avoidance coping moderated the relationship between perceived sociocultural pressures and positive body image, i.e., the negative effect of perceived sociocultural pressures on positive body image depended on the level of avoidance coping. For instance, high levels of avoidance coping lowers positive body image and this effect on body image remained stable regardless of perceived pressures; whereas, when avoidance coping was low and sociocultural pressures were also low, positive body image was still relatively high. However, small increases in sociocultural pressures strengthened the negative effect on positive body image. Results provide preliminary support for addressing positive rational acceptance coping and avoidance coping in health education/promotion interventions designed to enhance positive body image among older women.
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    The effects of the pitcher-ground interaction on fastball pitching velocity
    (December 2023) Tuttle, Noelle; Kwon, Young-Hoo; Ellina Grigorieva; David Nichols; Gretchen Oliver
    Baseball is one of the most popular sports worldwide and participation continues to rise, including the number of pitchers per team. Previous studies have investigated the relationship between ground reaction forces (GRF) and pitch velocity; however, no study has fully defined the pitcher-ground interaction as it relates to fastball pitch velocity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the pitcher-ground interaction variables and normalized linear wrist velocity (NLWV), an indirect indicator of pitch velocity, in experienced baseball pitchers. Fifteen male baseball pitchers (4 left-handed; age = 20.9 ± 5.2 years; height = 177.2 ± 7.6 cm; mass = 80.0 ± 10.8 kg; experience = 5.6 ± 5.2 years) were recruited for participation. All participants were able to throw at least 10 full-effort fastballs and had consistent pitching mechanics. This study utilized a 10-camera motion capture system and a custom pitching mound with three imbedded force plates. Pitchers were asked to throw 10 successful fastballs at top velocity to a target. Variables measured were maximum NLWV, GRF for the drive, stride, and combined feet in the up/down (U/D), towards/away (T/A), and left/right (L/R) directions, and pitcher-ground interaction moments [ground reaction force moment (GRFM) and total external moment] for the drive, stride, and combined feet about the U/D, T/A, and L/R axes. It was determined that maximum GRF of the drive foot in the towards direction, and the stride foot and combined feet in the up and away directions were significantly (p < .05) and strongly correlated with NLWV. Additionally, maximum GRFM and total external moment of the drive foot about the L/R axis, and total external moment of the combined feet about the T/A axis during the first peak were significantly and strongly correlated with NLWV. Based on these findings, the drive foot is responsible for creating large external moments, while the primary role of the stride foot is to generate large external forces prior to ball release, which are associated with increased NLWV. Therefore, pitchers may choose to adapt a pitching style that maximizes the pitcher-ground interaction prior to ball release.
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    Muscle damage, inflammation, and muscular performance following the physical abilities test in professional firefighters
    (May 2023) Sokoloski, Matthew Lawrence 1992-; Rigby, Brandon; Irvine, Chris; Bosak, Andy; King, George; Irvine, Chris; Bosak, Andy; Biggerstaff, Kyle D; King, George
    Proper monitoring of fatigue, cardiovascular disease, and muscular damage may be used to decrease the high levels of cardiovascular disease, overuse musculoskeletal injuries, and workers compensation claims within the profession of firefighting. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle damage, muscular fatigue, and inflammation responses following a typical firefighting shift. Twenty-four professional firefighters completed two Physical Abilities Tests to standardize the tasks typically performed in a day of work and elicit similar physiological responses. These individuals were then monitored for 48hrs. Prior to and 48hrs following the PAT these individuals were evaluated for changes in strength, power, range of motion, as well as blood markers including myoglobin, TNF-α, and C-Reactive Protein. Following the PAT significant differences in myoglobin (p < 0.05), grip strength (p < 0.05), vertical jump (p < 0.05), and sit-and-reach (p < 0.05) were observed. No differences in TNF-α or C-Reactive Protein were observed (p > 0.05). Twenty-four hours following a shift firefighter still show decreased levels of strength, power, and range of motion. This may lead to decreases in performance and an increased risk of injury.
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    Psychometric validation of the Physical Educators’ Judgments about Inclusion in Angola
    (August 2023) Gomes, Agueda Maria Flores 1968-; Dillon, Suzanna R; Mann, Mark; Silliman-French, Lisa; Dunlap, Karen
    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Educators’ Judgments about Inclusion in Angola (PEJI-A). Originally developed by Hodge at al. (2002), the Physical Educators’ Judgments about Inclusion (PEJI) evaluates physical educators’ judgments concerning “cognitive expressions of attitudes” related to inclusion of students with disabilities in general physical education settings (p. 435) and consists of 16 items divided among three subscales: (a) inclusion versus exclusion, (b) acceptance of students with disabilities, and (c) perceived training needs. The pre-existing PEJI instrument was translated and evaluated using a three-phase process that involved: (a) translating of the PEJI instrument from English to Portuguese as spoken in Angola (i.e., PEJI-A), (b) establishing evidence of face and content validity of the PEJI-A, and (c) investigating the reliability and construct validity of the PEJI-A. Data were collected from 237 elementary classroom and secondary physical education teachers from three Angolan provinces using a demographic questionnaire and the PEJI-A. Based on the results of the reliability analysis, EFA, and Pearson correlation analysis, the present version of the Physical Educators’ Judgments about Inclusion in Angola (PEJI-A), inclusive of all three subscales, does not demonstrate evidence of reliability and validity because the first subscale of the PEJI-A (specific to the dimension of inclusion) was not deemed to be reliable or valid. It appears that the PEJI-A needs to be revised with items that better measure the constructs of inclusion consistent with the Angolan educational context. Despite the statistical constraints of the PEJI-A related to subscale 1, it does show promise as a much-needed tool to investigate physical education for students with disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa and address the preservice and in-service training needs of physical educators that are well-documented in the literature.
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    Multi-level influences on seafood consumption among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants in New Orleans, Louisiana
    (August 2023) Causey, Traci; Amuta, Ann; Golman, Mandy; Imrhan, Victorine
    Seafood is a lean, nutrient dense protein source that is recommended for weekly consumption based on the benefits for human health, yet only 10% of Americans meet the recommendation. The purpose of this study was to explore social-ecological factors associated with seafood consumption among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in New Orleans, Louisiana using a quantitative cross-sectional research design and survey instrument. Results showed only 50% of study participants (N = 238) consumed at least two weekly servings of seafood. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participants’ sociodemographics characteristics, knowledge of the health and environmental benefits of seafood, social support and group norms, and the influence of policies, public health campaigns, and media and seafood consumption. Race (p = .037, OR= .371) and children in household (p = .007, OR = .565) were statistically significant sociodemographic characteristics. Relative to the participants’ knowledge of the health and environmental benefits of seafood, the model was not statistically significant, χ2(1) = .000, p = 1.00, Nagelkerke R2 = .000. Families that consume seafood (p < .001, OR = 3.694) and local New Orleans culture (p = .008, OR = 1.962) were significant intrapersonal predictors. At the societal level, the significant predictors included awareness of seafood-related policies and messaging through Eat Fit Nola (p < .001) and an unawareness through LiveWell Louisiana (p = .030), SNAP-Ed (p = .005), family/friends (p = .015), and social media (p = .039). Crosstabulations using Pearson’s chi-square and Cramer’s V tests were conducted to examine participants’ perceptions relative to 15 statements and the influence of accessibility, availability, and cost and seafood consumption. There was a significant relationship between the statement “I worry about mercury when eating seafood” and seafood consumption, χ2(1) = 6.183, p = .013, Cramer’s V = .191 and seafood consumption. There was no statistically significant relationship between all other factors. Based on the findings from this study, comprehensive health promotion and education is needed to address low levels of seafood consumption among SNAP participants. Further exploration is needed to understand the potential role of family engagement to increase seafood consumption.
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    Leadership development and effectiveness among female athletic directors in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
    (May 2023) Elms, Rachel; Kimberly Miloch; Nichols, David; Jennifer Flanagan
    Women’s participation in sport has increased significantly, however, women remain significantly underrepresented in leadership positions at all levels (Burton, 2015). While Title IX has been a monumental force for the increase of female sport participation (Coakley, 2009), the authority of women remains marginalized in sport (Bopp & Walker, 2011). Furthermore, current reports by Lapchick (2021) indicate that women now hold only 36.3% of upper management positions in sport. Furthermore, studies pertaining to the interaction between leader gender and leadership style in sport are also limited (Wells, Peachey, 2014; Peachey, Burton, 2011; Dirik, 2020). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate leadership style in sport as it relates to gender, years in leadership positions, and effectiveness via a developmental perspective. Qualitative data was collected through individual, in-depth semi-structured interviews involving female athletic directors in intercollegiate sport. The study sample featured eight female athletic directors currently working in the NCAA divisions I, II, and III. The open-ended interview questions focused on the women’s career paths, perceptions of leadership within collegiate sport settings, and changes in leadership style over time. These questions were developed from the literature review yet altered to meet the objectives of the study. The term effectiveness was defined as a high-level of achievement within the leadership role. Achievement for this study indicates positive results as they refer to relationships and career goal fulfillment within the role of athletic director. Through the tedious process of coding and data reduction and analysis, ten dominant themes were established. The themes for RQ1 included (a) leadership style variance (b) the importance of collaboration. The themes for RQ2 included (a) underrepresentation (b) gender-based stereotypes (c) work-life applications. The themes for R3 included: (a) career viability (b) leadership support. The findings of this research are valuable in the furthering of career options and opportunities for females seeking to pursue athletic director roles within the NCAA. The findings also suggest areas for improvement within the organizational environment of leadership within intercollegiate sport.
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    Self-efficacy, barriers, and opportunities: Examining the delivery of asthma education among U.S. primary care physician assistants
    (May 2023) Greenlee, Quanté Lamont 1982-; Amuta, Ann; Amuta, Ann; Amuta, Ann; King, George; Amuta, Ann; Amuta, Ann; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Isik, Elif
    The delivery of asthma education among primary care physician assistants (PAs) has not been well documented in the literature. Although researchers have mentioned PAs in previous studies, the findings were not specific to the profession. This study had a quantitative cross-sectional research design with a convenience sample representative of primary care PAs from across the United States (N = 140). The purpose of the study was to determine what PA practice characteristics (primary care discipline, clinic location, time spent with patient, and years of work experience) were predictive for the delivery of asthma education delivery. The study also sought to determine if clinical experience (years of work experience and number of asthma patients seen weekly) was predictive of asthma education self-efficacy. The survey deployed in this study was a modified version of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 2012 National Asthma Survey. Survey modifications included adding questions to focus on Component 2 (asthma education) of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program EPR-3 guidelines and removing questions on asthma treatment and monitoring. The modified 2012 NAS was an 11-item survey to collect data on clinical demographics, clinical experience, measured asthma education resources, components of asthma education delivered, barriers to asthma education, asthma education self-efficacy, and perceived patient knowledge. The participants also completed a personal demographics survey. Multiple regression was conducted to determine the relationship between PA practice characteristics and asthma education and the relationship between clinical experience and asthma education self-efficacy. Further analyses included a binomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between asthma education and barriers, chi-square goodness of fit to examine the relationship between components of asthma education, and Spearman’s Rho to examine the relationship between perceived patient knowledge and asthma education. Statistical analysis was significant for the relationship between time spent with patient and total asthma education delivered (ß = .19, p = .03), indicating that more time spent with patient increased the delivery of asthma education. Based on the negative regression coefficient, male gender (ß = -.26, p < .01) was associated with higher levels of asthma education. Chi-square goodness of fit was also statistically significant for symptom recognition education (χ2(1) = 124.46, p < .001), risk-factor avoidance education (χ2(1) = 132.11, p < .001), home and work environment (χ2(1) = 37.03, p < .001), and observation of inhaler technique (χ2(1) = 9.26, p = .002), indicating a difference between the components of asthma education delivered by primary care PAs. Asthma action plans was the only asthma education component not statistically significant (χ2(1) = 0.46, p = .499). The statistical tests examining the relationships between clinical experience and asthma education self-efficacy, asthma education and barriers, and perceived patient knowledge and asthma education had no statistically significant results. The results of this study indicate that time is a primary barrier to the delivery of asthma education among PAs. Additionally, while the results do not indicate that PAs perform asthma education at significant lower rates than other PCCs, overall self-efficacy and rates of delivery need improvement.
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    Physical activity experiences of young adults attending a college for neurodiverse learners
    (2022-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Keener, Elizabeth; Dillon, Suzanna R; Nichols, David; Healy, Sean; Keeley, Randa
    Neurodiversity is a term used to describe a broad spectrum of learning differences (LD) including attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Asperger’s Syndrome, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, and other social, psychological, or processing differences (Griffin & Pollack, 2009). Neurodiversity is not a diagnosis but is instead a concept inspired by the idea that the long-standing cultural norms that define disability limit our understanding of the vastness of human experience (Shapiro, 1994). Defined under neurodiversity, these conditions are not disorders, but are differences in experiencing and processing physical, social, and cultural environments (Griffin & Pollack, 2009). The larger neurotypical cultural environment limits access and promotes stigmatization of neurodiverse individuals (Griffin & Pollack, 2009), which creates challenges for people who identify as having a neurodiversity. These challenges contribute to low physical activity (PA) participation, and negative perceptions of health, wellness, and quality of life among neurodiverse individuals (Hamm & Yun, 2017; Smith et al., 2019; Yang et al., 2013). Transition to college can exacerbate barriers to PA for neurodiverse young adults. To date, very little research exists on the PA experiences of neurodiverse young adults attending Institutions of higher education (IHE). A few IHEs designed for neurodiverse learners are unique institutions that utilize evidence-based strategies to promote academic and personal success which can have an influence on PA participation in this population. The purpose of this study is to explore PA experiences of neurodiverse young adults and factors that contribute to participation in PA.
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    Using experiential education to explore changes in students' perceptions toward those experiencing poverty and food insecurity
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Robinson-Doyle, Laura; Carolyn, Carolyn E; Golman, Mandy; Mann, Mark
    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods research study was to examine the impact of an undergraduate short-term experiential learning nutrition course on influencing students’ perceptions toward individuals experiencing poverty and food insecurity (FI). The Undergraduate Perception of Poverty Tracking Survey (UPPTS), a 39-item Likert-scale survey instrument, was the tool used to measure perception toward poverty among the participants. Higher scores on the UPPTS indicate less-than-positive views of and a lack of empathy for the poor. A lower score indicates a more positive and empathetic view of poverty. Student reflection journals were also collected and used to assess themes, further filling in any gaps within perception that the UPPTS may not have assessed. The secondary purpose of this research was to assess the overall undergraduate students’ perceptions of poverty and the incidence of FI at a private elite university in Texas and further determine if there was a relationship between the UPPTS and demographics, financial aid status, and food security status within the target population. Subjects included a convenience and snowball sampling of undergraduate students attending Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, during the 2022 academic school year. Three surveys were combined into one questionnaire for participants to complete: (a) UPPTS, (b) U.S. Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module (USDA HFSSM), and (c) self-identified demographics (age, gender, ethnicity/race, class status, school/college, financial aid status, type of high school attended, religious affiliation, and family household income). A paired samples t test was performed to test pre-course perception scores to post-course perception scores following the short-term course. Results indicated that after taking an experiential learning nutrition course, students’ scores on the UPPTS indicated a more favorable and empathetic view toward those experiencing poverty. Thematic analysis from student reflection journals indicated greater awareness of structural attributions toward poverty, increased empathy toward poverty, increased knowledge and understanding toward poverty issues, and increased intention to advocate for those experiencing poverty. For the total undergraduate sample, UTTPS total scores were slightly higher compared to the instrument mean scores, thus indicating a more unfavorable perception toward those experiencing poverty. In assessing food security, based on the frequency analysis of the total participants, roughly 23% of the undergraduate sample was considered food insecure. Lastly, a multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the UPPTS and demographics, financial aid status, and food security status within the target population. There was no significant relationship between age, class status, school/college, financial aid status, high school, religious affiliation, and food security status on UPPTS scores. Of the predictors, sex, race, and income were significant. Females were noted to view poverty more favorably compared to males, Black/African Americans held more favorable views compared to non-Black/African Americans, and students with a household income less than $80,000/year also noted a more favorable view of those experiencing poverty. The short-term experiential nutrition course offered insight to the impact of experiential learning techniques on influencing perceptions and misconceptions regarding poverty within the undergraduate population at private elite universities. Data from the total undergraduate sample were used to obtain a better understanding of undergraduate perceptions toward poverty and offer recommendations and implications on future course development within the sample population. Lastly, FI data were used to contribute to the body of literature assessing FI on private universities, and further inform private elite universities of the incidence of FI on campus.
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    The impact of perceived social support on heart disease risk factor knowledge among African American women in Texas
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Bratcher, Brittny; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Golman, Mandy; Amuta , Ann
    Heart disease disproportionately impacts African American women nationwide and in Texas. Heart disease disparities are linked to increased risk factors that are often related to reduced heart disease risk factor knowledge and limited socioeconomic resources. However, there is a need to determine the relationship between perceived social support and heart disease risk within this population. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine how perceived social support impacts heart disease risk factor knowledge among African American women aged 30-55 in Texas, and (2) to examine whether demographic characteristics moderate a relationship between perceived social support and heart disease knowledge. This study employed a quantitative research design with purposeful and snowball sampling representative of African American women aged 30-55 residing in Texas (n = 121). The participants completed a survey comprised of a demographic questionnaire, the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ), and the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that when demographic variables are controlled, age (standardized β= .28, p = .002) and income (standardized β= .19, p = .037) are the only predictor variables that indicate social support impacts heart disease knowledge in the sample population, thus indicating nonsignificant differences in the regression model (standardized β = -.023, p = .80). In addition, hierarchical multiple regression revealed that demographic variables age (F change = 1.056, R square change = .008, and p = .306), education (F (3, 115) = .583, p = .627), family history (F (2, 116) = 1.51, p = .225) and income (F change = 1.006, R2 change = .008, and p = .318) as individual predictors yielded nonsignificant differences in the overall predictive model, indicating that demographic variables do not moderate a relationship between social support and heart disease risk factor knowledge. Overall, the current study reveals the need to increase heart health knowledge through interventions and programs that combine both risk factor education and social support to reduce heart health disparities in African American women.
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    Microaggressions and Latina health
    (2022-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Rios, Jeannine; Menn, Mindy; Terrizzi, John A; King, George; Amuta, Ann O
    This exploratory study examined racial microaggressions experienced by Latinas and considered the relationship to both physical and mental health outcomes. Using the Racial Microaggression Scale (RMAS; Torres-Harding et al., 2012) 963 self-identified Latinas representing 18 countries and 36 states within the United States, participated in the study. 659 participant’s data were used for analyses. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was conducted using the six RMAS subscales (Foreigner, Sexualization, Criminality, Low Achieving, Invisibility and Environmental) and three DASS (Depression, Anxiety and Stress) to assess the relationship between microaggressions and mental health. The full model was statistically significant Wilks’s λ = .907 criterion, F (18, 1887.05) = 3.65, p < .001. with the r2 type effect size was .093. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine if frequency of racial microaggressions were related to self-esteem using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; 1979). Results of this model also showed statistical significance F(6, 665) = 3.14, p =.005, R2 = .03 with a small to moderate effect size. Another CCA was conducted using the six microaggressions subscales previously mentioned as predictors of physical health outcomes using the Physical Health Questionnaire (Schat et al., 2005) which has four subscales. This model was also statistically significant using the Wilks’s λ = .872 criterion, F(24, 2286.23) = 3.82, p< .001. Studying Ethnic identity (EIS-B; Douglass & Umana-Taylor, 2015) as a moderator between racial microaggressions and mental health outcomes was not supported, neither using RSES nor DASS.
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    Fraternity Personal Health, Inspiring Transformation (FRAT PHIT): Type 2 diabetes nutrition and physical activity behaviors among African American men
    (2022-06-14) Hunter, Byron; Amuta, Ann
    Purpose: African American (AA) men are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2D). Effective T2D programs are those that recognize and leverage the protective benefits of brotherhoods or peer-to-peer networks of AA men. Previous researchers have engaged AA brotherhoods in T2D interventions, yet with focuses limited to barbershops and faith-based settings. New evidence suggests the need to include AA fraternities in research studies. This cross-sectional study was a means to understand how AA fraternal brotherhoods impact T2D health outcomes among members. Methods: A total of 177 individuals met the study criteria and were included in the analysis. Participant recruitment was via social media and email contact to leaders across five AA fraternities. Multiple linear regression analyses occurred to determine the relationship between fraternity, brotherhood, T2D personal and family history, risk perception, and T2D prevention behaviors. Results: The majority of the participants were not diagnosed with T2D (n = 161, 91.0%). The mean daily fruit and vegetable consumption was 14.06 (SD = 8.59) servings; and the mean weekly physical activity time was 218.34 (SD = 176.08) minutes. Brotherhood did not emerge as a significant factor in engaging AA in T2D preventive. However, the results suggest that brotherhood is high among AA fraternity members (accountability [M = 24.75, SD = 3.77], belonging [M = 23.21, SD = 4.81], solidarity [M = 17.33, SD 3.55], and shared social experiences [M = 13.08, SD 4.49]). Conclusion: The outcomes of this study suggest that AA fraternities have strong brotherhood, have resources to support health lifestyles, and are conscientious of health behaviors necessary to prevent T2D. Health educators have an opportunity to collaborate with AA fraternities to conduct research among members and could leverage their relationships to promote health behavior change with shared populations and communities of interest.
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    Biomechanical effects on lower-body extremities during a maximum effort kettlebell swing protocol
    (2022-06-13) Levine, Nicholas A; Kwon, Young-Hoo
    Kettlebell training provides multiple health benefits, including the generation of power. However, previous biomechanical research has been restricted to a few sets or a few repetitions performed in one effort. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the kinematics and kinetics of lower-body joints during a repeated, maximum effort kettlebell swing protocol. Sixteen resistance and kettlebell swing experienced males performed 10 rounds of a kettlebell swing routine (30 s of swings followed by 30 s of rest). Each participant utilized a kettlebell of approximately 20% of their respective body mass and were instructed to perform as many swings as possible each round. Kinematic (i.e., swing duration and angular velocities) and kinetic (i.e., normalized sagittal plane ground reaction force, resultant joint moment [RJM] and power) variables were extracted for the early portion and late portion of the round. Swing duration and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF) increased within a round, while hip joint power decreased. Changes in swing duration were minimal, but consistent due to an increase in overall fatigue. An increase in GRF was observed at the end of the round, which is a potential concern for injury. Hip joint power decreased primarily due to a slower angular velocity. For experienced (both kettlebell and overall resistance trained) individuals, this protocol may be beneficial towards power-training focused routines, as power was not different across rounds while also maintain large RJM values throughout the duration of the exercise.
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    Examining the effect of Drums Alive® intervention on verbal communication and task engagement in children with autism spectrum disorder
    (2022-05-27) Yang, Qin; Dillon, Suzanna R
    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may experience challenges with verbal communication (VC) and task engagement (TE) in daily and academic activities. Antecedent-based interventions (ABI) have been explored as evidence-based practices (EBP) to improve VC and TE for children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Drums Alive® implemented as an ABI on VC and TE in children with ASD. Methods: Participants were five male children with ASD, aged 4-6 years, who completed an 8-week single-subject reversal design (A1-B1-A2-B2) study. In the A1-B1-A2-B2 research design, the baseline and intervention withdrawal phases (A1 and A2) consisted of six to eight 15-min observation sessions with the children with ASD engaged in a structured activity (e.g., Legos, Jenga, hopscotch, beanbag tossing, etc.). The intervention phases (B1 and B2) consisted of six to eight 15-min Drums Alive® sessions followed by the same 15-min observation sessions. The 10-s partial interval recording data for the four phases were analyzed through visual inspection. Results: For all five participants, TE percentages were higher in the two intervention phases than the baseline and intervention withdrawal phases, but no increases were observed for VC percentages in the two intervention phases. Conclusion: While limited, there appears to be support for Drums Alive® as an ABI to improve TE for children with ASD. However, further research with more participants is needed to confirm the impact of the Drums Alive® program.
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    Examining the effect of Drums Alive® intervention on verbal communication and task engagement in children with autism spectrum disorder
    (2022-05-27) Yang, Qin; Dillon, Suzanna R
    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may experience challenges with verbal communication (VC) and task engagement (TE) in daily and academic activities. Antecedent-based interventions (ABI) have been explored as evidence-based practices (EBP) to improve VC and TE for children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Drums Alive® implemented as an ABI on VC and TE in children with ASD. Methods: Participants were five male children with ASD, aged 4-6 years, who completed an 8-week single-subject reversal design (A1-B1-A2-B2) study. In the A1-B1-A2-B2 research design, the baseline and intervention withdrawal phases (A1 and A2) consisted of six to eight 15-min observation sessions with the children with ASD engaged in a structured activity (e.g., Legos, Jenga, hopscotch, beanbag tossing, etc.). The intervention phases (B1 and B2) consisted of six to eight 15-min Drums Alive® sessions followed by the same 15-min observation sessions. The 10-s partial interval recording data for the four phases were analyzed through visual inspection. Results: For all five participants, TE percentages were higher in the two intervention phases than the baseline and intervention withdrawal phases, but no increases were observed for VC percentages in the two intervention phases. Conclusion: While limited, there appears to be support for Drums Alive® as an ABI to improve TE for children with ASD. However, further research with more participants is needed to confirm the impact of the Drums Alive® program.
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    Examining the effect of Drums Alive® intervention on verbal communication and task engagement in children with autism spectrum disorder
    (2022-05-27) Yang, Qin; Dillon, Suzanna R
    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may experience challenges with verbal communication (VC) and task engagement (TE) in daily and academic activities. Antecedent-based interventions (ABI) have been explored as evidence-based practices (EBP) to improve VC and TE for children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Drums Alive® implemented as an ABI on VC and TE in children with ASD. Methods: Participants were five male children with ASD, aged 4-6 years, who completed an 8-week single-subject reversal design (A1-B1-A2-B2) study. In the A1-B1-A2-B2 research design, the baseline and intervention withdrawal phases (A1 and A2) consisted of six to eight 15-min observation sessions with the children with ASD engaged in a structured activity (e.g., Legos, Jenga, hopscotch, beanbag tossing, etc.). The intervention phases (B1 and B2) consisted of six to eight 15-min Drums Alive® sessions followed by the same 15-min observation sessions. The 10-s partial interval recording data for the four phases were analyzed through visual inspection. Results: For all five participants, TE percentages were higher in the two intervention phases than the baseline and intervention withdrawal phases, but no increases were observed for VC percentages in the two intervention phases. Conclusion: While limited, there appears to be support for Drums Alive® as an ABI to improve TE for children with ASD. However, further research with more participants is needed to confirm the impact of the Drums Alive® program.
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    The effects of cannabidiol on measures of performance following eccentric exercise
    (2022-04-29) Crossland, Brett; Rigby, Rhett
    Following intense exercise, there is a period of time when performance is decreased. Cannabidiol (CBD) is advertised as an anti-inflammatory supplement that can expedite recovery when consumed after exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if CBD supplementation reduces fatigue and inflammation, and enhances performance, following eccentric exercise. A double-blind, placebo controlled, repeated measures crossover design was used. Twenty-four well-trained female participants (age = 21.2 ± 1.8 yrs., height = 166.4 ± 8 cm, weight = 64.9 ± 9.1 kg) were randomized to receive 5 mg/kg of CBD in pill form or a placebo 2 hrs prior to, immediately following, and 10 hrs following muscle damage. For each treatment, 100 repetitions of unilateral eccentric leg extension were completed to induce muscle damage. Blood was collected, and performance and fatigue were measured prior to, and 4 hrs, 24 hrs, and 48 hrs following the muscle damage. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of myoglobin (Mb) and inflammatory markers (IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-6). Fatigue was measured utilizing a visual analogue fatigue scale. Performance was measured across 5 variables: vertical jump (cm), peak dynamic knee extensor torque at 60, 180, and 300°/sec (N· m), and peak isometric knee extensor torque (N· m). Approximately 28 days separated treatment administration to control for the menstrual cycle. No significant differences (p = 0.573) were observed between the treatments for any inflammatory marker. Peak torque at 60°/sec (p = 0.001) and peak isometric torque (p = 0.02) were significantly lower 24 hrs following muscle damage, but none of the 5 measured performance variables were significantly different (p > 0.05 for all) between treatments at any time point. A significant increase (p = 0.002) in Mb concentrations was observed across treatments 4 hrs following muscle damage, but no significant differences (p = 0.12) were observed between treatments at any timepoint. Subjective fatigue was not significantly different (p = 0.13) between the treatments at any timepoint. Cannabidiol supplementation was unable to reduce fatigue, limit inflammation, or restore performance in well-trained female athletes.
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    Sport and physical education for persons with physical disabilities in Telugu-speaking states of India
    (8/18/2021) Chennapragada, Sripadmini; Dillon, Suzanna Rocco
    The 2011 Census of India reports that the largest percentage of persons with disabilities (PwD) in India are citizens living with movement disabilities. For persons with movement disabilities, or more commonly referred to as persons with physical disabilities (PwPD), increased strength, improved mental well-being, and enhanced overall health functioning have been reported as the benefits experienced for engaging in regular physical activity (McBurney, Taylor, Dodd & Graham, 2003). Sports and physical education (SPE), which have been supported by disability rights laws and progressive education policies supporting inclusive education in India’s public schools, hold promise for PwPD to access regular physical activity. For example, India’s Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act of 2016’s details the disability sport rights of PwD in Chapter V. Even with these advances in policy, very little is known about the lived experiences of PwD in SPE in India. Hence, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of persons with physical disabilities (PwPD) in sport and physical education in Telugu speaking states (TSS) of India. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory (BEST) formed the theoretical framework for this phenomenological research study. Utilizing the ten qualitative research criteria as described by Tracy (2010), this study inductively analyzed the structured interview responses of 18 PwPD (9 male; 9 female), who were recruited through purposive sampling from TSS in India. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) participation contingent on others, (b) limited awareness and knowledge, and (c) missing support systems. The PwPD participating in this study were generally not able to access SPE opportunities within their schools and at the community level. However, within the limited opportunities available, some families and community members (including teachers) at microsystem levels were supportive of SPE participation for the PwPD. It appears there is a critical need for the governments of the TSS in India to develop policies that will prioritize accessibility projects in schools, improve personnel preparation programs, and raise awareness among the state’s population about PwPD engaging in SPE activities.
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    The influence of attentional focus on movement variability
    (5/14/2021) Hung, Cheng-Ju; Becker, Kevin A
    The advantage of an external focus (EF) over internal focus (IF) in performance outcomes is consistent in a large body of literature. Based on the Constrained Action Hypothesis, an external focus may promote flexibility and adaptability in the motor system which may result in higher movement variability. Limited previous evidence supports the claim that an EF promotes more functional variability. Moreover, the previous studies also suggested that task difficulty may modulate the effect of attentional focus. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influences of attentional focus (EF & IF) and the level of task difficulty on movement variability (SD of joint angles, goal-equivalent variability [VUCM], non goal-equivalent variability [VORT]) as well as performance (COP trajectory) during a task involving standing and squatting on inflatable balancing discs. Young healthy adults (N = 36) balanced on inflatable discs while standing (low difficulty) and holding squat (high difficulty). For each level of difficulty, they completed three 10-s trials for each focus condition (baseline [no instruction provided], IF, and EF). The order of task difficulty was counterbalanced and the focus condition order was randomized. Kinematic and COP data were captured by 9 Vicon infrared cameras (250 Hz) and 2 AMTI force plates. Separate factorial MANOVAs assessed differences due to focus and difficulty for COP trajectory (SD of COP in anterior/posterior and medial/lateral directions, COPX & COPY) and movement variability as assessed by SD of joint angles and uncontrolled manifold analysis (UCM, VUCM & VORT). Sidak post-hoc tests were used for pairwise comparisons. Results showed there was a reduction of postural sway in the anterior/posterior direction (COPX) in EF compared to IF and baseline (p = .024, p < .001, respectively). An EF also decreased the SD of the ankle relative to baseline in the easier version of task (p = .003) and lowered the SD of knee and hip with reference to baseline across two level of difficulties (p = .050, p = .003, respectively). UCM measures showed no differences between an EF and IF, but there was a reduction of VUCM in the EF condition compared to baseline (p =.009). While behavioral benefits of an EF are consistent with previous research, the hypothesis that an EF promotes greater functional variability was not supported, requiring further study with an array of motor tasks to determine the veracity of the claim.