Fashion & Textiles

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    Job content analysis of apparel buyer positions in Department stores
    (1993-08) Chung, Sung; Jernigan, Marian; Gill, Jack; Riggs, Charles
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the job content of apparel buyer positions in department stores and make comparisons of job elements according to store size as determined by annual sales volume. A modified Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) was used to determine job content in six major categories. Questionnaires were distributed to 750 buyers of men's, women's or children's apparel in 42 department stores. A sample of 185 buyers responded to the questionnaire. The most important/extensively used and the least important/extensively used job elements in each of the six PAQ divisions were determined by comparing mean scores. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to determine differences in the importance/extent of use of job elements among buyers of department stores in the following three sizes: (a) small department stores with sales volume under $300 million, (b)~medium-sized department stores with sales volume between \$300 million and $1 billion, and (c)~large department stores with sales volume of \$1 billion plus. As a post hoc test, Scheffe for unequal sample sizes was used to find the locations of differences among buyers of department stores in different sizes. Small department store buyers used events as an information source more extensively than did buyers of medium-sized or large stores. A resident buying office was less extensively used by large department store buyers than by buyers of stores in any other size. Large department store buyers placed a significantly lower rating on the importance of arranging/positioning than did buyers of other sized stores. Contacts with sales personnel were estimated as significantly more important by small department store buyers than by buyers of stores in any other size category.
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    Giving birth in the Ivory Tower: A closer look at the unique needs of pregnant and mothering graduate students
    (2/12/2020) Ellis, Erin Graybill; Gullion, Jessica Smartt, 1972-
    The purpose of this study is to examine the lived experiences of graduate student women who pregnancy, childbirth, and mothering while enrolled in graduate school using Berlant's (2011) "cruel optimism." The primary goal of this study is to understand the subjective experiences of pregnant graduate students and how accommodations for pregnancy and birth related absences are handled. To accomplish this goal, the following questions guided my research: In what ways was the student facilitated or hindered by the formal and/or informal policies (or the lack thereof) in place to guide decisions about pregnancy related absences and maternity leave? What sort of support networks and institutional supports helped students be successful or how did a lack of support negatively impact their success? How can graduate departments and universities best support pregnant and mothering graduate students? There are rarely formal policies set in place for pregnancy during graduate school and this leads to departments making decisions on a case-by-case basis. Such a tactic leads to inequality and unfairness across universities and departments (Ellis 2014; Ellis and Gullion 2015). Further, while faculty mothers would likely qualify for maternity leave or the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), most graduate students are employed by their departments on a part-time basis and do not work enough hours to qualify for FMLA. Title IX is supposed to protect pregnant students from discrimination as far as their coursework goes (Mason, Wolfinger, and Goulden 2013; Mason and Younger 2014), but is generally not applied to protect graduate students' employment at the university. Pregnant graduate students who work at their university are in a gray area where they do not receive the benefits of faculty members but also do not fully receive the protections of students. This study explores how a lack of formal policies impacts graduate student mothers and how universities can better support graduate student mothers.
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    Latino families’ expectations about the process of family therapy, therapists, treatment outcome, termination, and future therapy
    (3/26/2020) Karkle, Miriam PP; Ladd, Linda, Ph. D.
    While researchers have focused on exploring client expectations about therapy, most of these studies have focused on individual therapy and the mainstream population. Very few studies have been dedicated to exploring the expectations of Latino/a clients about therapy and even fewer have been dedicated to exploring the experience of Latino families in family therapy. The theoretical framework used in this qualitative research is General Systems theory and Expectancy theory. The purpose of this study was to explore families’ expectations about the process during family therapy treatment and the expectations about the outcome of therapy and the termination process. Participants in this study were first- and second-generation immigrants from Central and South America, Mexico, and Caribbean Islands, which are Cuba, Dominican Republican, and Puerto Rico. Participants answered an online qualitative survey. After data were analyzed, five themes and several subthemes were found in this study: (1) Positive Experience in Therapy, with three subthemes: (1a) Expectations before therapy, (1b) Observations after therapy, and (1c) Experience of parents with therapy; (2) Involvement of Family Led to Effective Treatment; (3) Latinos Expected Therapy to be Useful; (4) Latino Expectations about Therapists, with two subthemes: (4a) Prior to Therapy and (4b) After Therapy; and (5) Children Expected That the Therapist Would Take Parents’ Side. The results of this study contribute to therapists’ understanding of Latino families’ expectations for therapy. Therapists will be able to facilitate therapeutic alliance with these families, and to write treatment planning that will meet the needs of the Latino families.
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    Effect of deteriorative agents on silk
    (1953-06) Moore, Mae Yoder; Beery-Mack, Pauline; Foster, Richard; Higgins, Robert
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    Investigating levels of knowledge about cotton, mohair, and wool fiber utilization, characteristics, and care among Texas manufacturers and United States retailers of apparel and home furnishings sewn products
    (2002-08) Warren-Welkey, Sharon; Young, Deborah; Riggs, Charles; Marshall, David, Ph. D.
    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze and compare levels of knowledge about the fiber utilization, characteristics, and care of cotton, mohair, and wool among Texas manufacturers and U.S. retailers. A secondary purpose was to investigate manufacturers' and retailers' beliefs about what consumers want from textile products, and what is important to consumers when purchasing textile products. Participants consisted of 153 Texas manufacturers and U.S. retailers; overall, the response rate was 18%. A self-administered, mail questionnaire was developed for the study that elicited general company and demographic information as well as information regarding knowledge of products made from cotton, mohair, and wool, beliefs about what consumers want from products made from textiles, beliefs about what is important to consumers when purchasing textile products, and demographic information. Overall findings indicated high levels of knowledge about the characteristics and care of products, in general, made from cotton, varying levels of knowledge about wool, and low levels of knowledge about mohair. Knowledge of cotton, mohair, and wool seemed to mirror usage levels for both manufacturers and retailers. Between groups, retailers had high levels of knowledge of cotton and wool. Overall, apparel retailers had higher levels of knowledge of the three natural fibers than the other three participant groups. The two most interesting significant differences surrounding statement agreements are related to the concept of wool being worn year round and the importance of the color of item to consumers. Apparel retailers were more likely to agree to the statement wool can be worn year round than the other groups. Apparel retailers and manufacturers were more likely to agree to the statement importance of color of the item than home furnishings retailers and manufacturers.
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    Ozonation in laundry treatments
    (1996-08) Strickland, Connie Frances; Riggs, Charles; Gill, Jack; Underwood, Sharon
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability to use ozonation as a replacement for, or to reduce the amount of chlorine used in the commercial laundry industry, with possible concomitant reductions in chemical, water, and energy usage. This investigation attempted to prove that ozonation aids in soil and stain removal. EMPA and TFI soil and stain strips were laundered using five different laundry formulas. The effects of the five laundry formulas were examined. The laundered test strips were evaluated for soil and stain removal using a Hunterlab Tristimulus Colorimeter Model D25M-9. The data were analyzed by means of a one-way analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test for mean differences. Colorimeter evaluation of the EMPA test strips revealed a significant difference between some laundry formulas. Some of the formulas not using ozone produced the greatest removal of soil on the blood stain and the red wine stain. Evaluations of the TFI test strips revealed no significant differences between laundry formulas.
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    Recruiting, interviewing, and hiring of executive trainees by apparel specialty chain, conventional department, and discount department stores
    (Texas Woman's University, 1999-05) Perez, Carla Jeanne Anderson; Jernigan, Marian H.; Underwood, Sharon; Gill, Jack; Riggs, Charles; Jennings, Glen
    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare recruiting, interviewing, and hiring procedures for entry-level executive trainees in three U.S.-based retail formats. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 124 retail executives working for 51 apparel specialty chain, 38 conventional department, and 35 discount department stores. Questionnaires were returned by 71 retailers, yielding a response rate of 57.3%. The sample consisted of vice presidents, managers, directors, and other retail executives responsible for the recruiting, interviewing, and hiring of entry-level executive trainees at 25 apparel specialty chain, 24 conventional department, and 22 discount department stores. Thirty (42.3%) reported annual sales volumes over $1 billion. Sixty-two (87.3%) had over 1,000 full-time employee equivalents and between three and 2,500 store units within their respective retail divisions. A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine if significant differences existed between store format and recruiting (Ho1) interviewing (Ho2), and hiring (Ho3) procedures used for entry-level executive trainees. Because significant differences at the .05 level were found for on-campus recruiting, Ho1 was rejected. Significant differences were found at the .05 level for 5 of 35 personal achievements (extracurricular activities, work experience, reference verification, overall, and minimum gpa) used as screening criteria for applicant selection to interview. On this basis, Ho2 was accepted. Significant differences were found at the .05 level for average starting salary and analytical skills as hiring criteria. Due to pivotal role of starting salary, Ho3 was rejected. Results indicate that although there are similarities in the recruiting, interviewing, and hiring procedures used by retailers of different store formats, significant differences do exist. A retailer's annual sales volume may be as important as its format when evaluating recruiting, interviewing, and hiring of entry-level executive trainees. Students and the educators preparing them for retail executive careers could benefit from considering for which store(s) a student is most likely an employee match.
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    Customer service expectations: A comparison of outlet center stores and full-price stores
    (2000-08) Brunson, Rochelle R.; Jernigan, Marian; Underwood, Sharon; Riggs, Charles; Young, Deborah
    The purpose of this research was to examine consumers' expectations of customer service at outlet stores located in outlet shopping centers as compared to consumers' expectations of customer service at full-price stores. A secondary purpose was to examine and describe consumers' shopping experiences at outlet center stores. The study also investigated whether, and to what degree, relationships existed between expectations of customer service at outlet center stores and demographic variables. Subjects for the study were drawn from a database list from Info-USA, a database list firm. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,000 subjects. One hundred and twenty seven surveys were returned as nondeliverable yielding an actual sample of 873. Questionnaires were returned by 165 participants, yielding a response rate of 18.90%. The final sample consisted of 132 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 with a mean age of 48.36. The majority of the participants were female (60.80%), married (72.73%), employed full time (57.25%), well-educated (bachelor's degree or higher) (50.76%), white non-Hispanic (85.61%), and an income level between $20,000 and $74,999 a year (60.66%). Two-tailed, paired t-tests were performed to determine if a statistically significant difference existed between expectations of customer service at outlet center stores as compared to fullprice stores. The results indicated that significant differences existed between 17 of the 27 attitudinal statements regarding customer service. In addition, factor analysis was performed to determine the expectations for customer service at outlet center stores. Factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on each of the customer service factors derived from the factor analysis in order to determine if a relationship existed between expectations and various demographic variables or the combination of two variables. Thirty-one significant relationships were found. Both education and employment status were significant factors in placing a higher level of importance on expectations. Specifically, consumers whose education fell below a bachelor's degree or consumers who work part-time, were unemployed, or who were full-time homemakers had higher customer service expectations. Results revealed that location/parking was the most important customer service aspect when making shopping decisions followed by selling services (salespeople). Although consumers expected a higher level of customer service at full-price stores than at outlet center stores, results revealed that consumers still place a high level of importance on customer service aspects at outlet center stores.
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    Technical skill, industry knowledge and experience, and interpersonal skill competencies for fashion design careers: A comparison of perspectives between fashion industry professionals and fashion educators
    (2010-05) Yang, Eunyoung; Dragoo, Sheri; Young, Deborah; Riggs, Charles; Magie, Anna
    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well as fashion educators will be critical to make accurate and timely curriculum decisions. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine and compare perception differences between fashion educators and fashion industry professionals regarding the necessary technical skills, industry knowledge and experience, and interpersonal skills, a fashion design college or university graduate should have in order to acquire an entry-level design position in the fashion industry. Data was collected from 390 participants consisting of 171 Fashion Industry Professionals and 219 Fashion Educators. Data was obtained through responses to a self-administered, Web-based questionnaire The study questionnaire contained competencies in three areas of Technical Skills, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skills. The research instrument consisted of two versions differing only in the demographics gathered for each participant group. Competencies were rated by two participant groups -- Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators, whose perceived importance ratings differed in 110 of 112 total competencies. Overall, Interpersonal Skills were rated more important than Technical Skills or Industry Knowledge and Experience by both groups Fashion Educators had significantly higher importance ratings than Fashion Industry Professionals in all three competency categories. In the Technical Skills category, Fashion Industry Professionals reported design skills as most important while Fashion Educators reported drawing skills most important. In the Industry Knowledge and Experience category, Fashion Industry Professionals reported experiential learning most important, with art/design knowledge highest for Fashion Educators. In the Interpersonal Skills category, Fashion Industry Professionals reported character as most important, with teamwork highest for Fashion Educators. Differences can be utilized by educators to revise and update programs, preparing students for the changing needs of the industry. Replication of the study should be made periodically to reflect fast changing fashion industry needs and conduct continuous program quality improvements.
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    Comparative analysis of two apparel design methods
    (1977-05) Kim, Insook; Garrett, Clarice; Carter, Bethel; Riggs, Charles
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    The appearance and durability of men's durable press trousers after line and tumble drying
    (1970-05-30) Silalahi, Budiarti; Broome, Esther; Mack, Pauline
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    Comparative inventories and costs of wardrobes for college girls from three ethnic groups
    (1970-12-31) Rogers, Eleanor L,; Caster, Bethel; Bateman, Jessie; Garrett, Clarice
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    Bleaching at cold temperatures with sodium hypochlorite: interactions of stain removal and fabric strength with concentration, time, ph, and temperature
    (1981-12-31) Palmer, LoErna Charlene Koch; Riggs, Charles; Garrett, Clarice; Gill, Jack; Thomas LaVerne; Impson, June
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    Zeolites as laundry detergent builders
    (Texas Woman's University, 1981-05-31) Robeck, Jacquelene Marie
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    Effectiveness of undergraduate fashion merchandising programs relative to professional preparation
    (Texas Woman's University, 1981-08-31) Neal, Edith Garrett